This is a detail refutation of a those who call them self as muslim but ascribe defect to Allah.
Before we start refuting this sect it is necessary to know deviant belief of some different cults.
Shia- They say “Allah lies” ( astagfirullah)
Wahabis: They say “ Allah has human attributes and Allah is localized in a direction.
Deobandis: They say”Allah can lie.
In the present article , this belief of “ Allah can lie” [ Imkan e Kizb] will be refuted in detail.
To understand this topic we must first know what is the belief of deobandi scholars on this topic
1.Shah Ismail Dehalvee writes :It is possible for Allah to be a liar.If you do not accept this , then Human being’s ability will be considered more than Allah’s ability. ( It means , since Human can lie and if some one thinks Allah cannot lie , then this will mean Allah’s ability is less than Human ability.)
2.Shaykh Khaleel Ambaithwi writes :”This issue of “imkan e kidhb is not a recentl issue, but in past people have discussed whether Khalf e waid ”(Allah can give Paradise to even sinners like Pharoah/ Abu Jahal, going against His own ruling) is possible or not. Hence we find in Durrul Mukhtar it is written Khalf e waid is possible /permissible ( jayaz)or not, and Asharis are in support of it because the Asharis do not consider it as an imperfection , rather they consider it as a Mercy of Allah.” ( Here we see how Mawlana Khaleel Ambaithvee is bringing a quote from Durrul Mukhtar on Khalf e waid to use it on Imkan e kIdhb.!)
3.Shaykh Khaleel Ambethvee writes : “This is the meaning of Imkaan-e-Kizb (possibility of telling a lie) that Allah Ta`ala has the power of telling lies but this will not happen.”
4.Shaykh Rashid Ahmed writes : ” Hence , it is now established that to Lie is with in the possibility of Allah subhanahu wa taala”
5.Shaykh Mahmoodul Hasan Al Deobandi writes: How can we say that it is out of the power of Allah that , He cannot perform bad acts.
All the original scans of the above quote can be seen here
THE BELIEF OF AHLUS SUNNAH
Subhan’allah (Arabic سبحان الله) is an Arabic phrase often translated as “Exalted is Allah.”
Said Mohammed bin AbeeBakr Abdulqader al-Razee, in his book “Mukhtar al-Sihah” one of the classic Arabic-wordbooks:
The meaning of subhanallah is, making Allah pure, and it is bound to its original word (sabh, meaning void) as if he said, I verily absolve Allah from all evil.
The origin for the word is sabh, voidness, or tasbeeh, making something void. So the direct literal meaning of the phrase is Allah is void… And there is a part that is unpronounced which is “void of all evil”. And this is the way that it is used in the quran. For example it says; “Subhanallah amma yasiffon – Void/Free is Allah from that (evil) which they ascribe (to Him)” and “Subhanalla amma yoshrikoon – Free is Allah from those polytheistic deeds that they do.”
A WHITE LIE BY A DEOBANDI SCHOLAR
Deobandi scholar, Mawlana Hussein Ahmed Tandvee says:
“Mujaddid Dhaleen ( Hussein Ahmed Tandvee uses this term for Imam Ahmed Raza Rh) says that Gangohi (rh) made his belief of Imkan e kidhb due to his being a follower of (Ismail ) Shaheed rh in this issue. This statement (of Imam Ahmed Raza Khan ) is full of ignorance. Mawlana Gangohi has followed the salaf as saliheen of this ummat in this issue. All the Asharis and the Maturidis were on this belief of Imkan e kidhb and Mawlana Gangohi has followed them on this issue. The books of Kalam are a witness to this fact and the writings of these scholars are present in them. In “Sharah Mawafiq” this issue ( of Imkan e kidhb) has been dealt at three places. In “ Masamirah’ also this issue has been explained. In the book’ Taqrirur usool ‘ which is the sharah of Tahreerul usool , muhaqqiq Ibn Hummam in Fatahul qadeer and his student Amir al haaj has stated this same view of Imakan e kidhb and has stated that this is the view of people of knowledge and Ahlus sunnah ,that is Asharis and Maturidis, also have the same belief( which Ismaeel Dehalvee and Mawlana Rashid Ahmed had) on this issue . Others who are in between Asharis and the Maturidis have disagreed on this issue due to the usage of the words and they have written commentary on this issue.”
(End of quote from As Shihabuth Thaqib ,by Mawlana Hussein Ahmed Tandvee,p 110 )
It is very clear from this passage that Ismaeel Dehalvee and Mawlana Rashid Gangohi had the belief of Imkan e kidhb.
This has been accepted and explained by their student, Mawlana Hussein Tandvee. Not only has Mawlana Hussein Tandvee accepted this fact , but he has even provided proof that this belief of Imkan e kidhb , ( Allah CAN lie) was the belief of all the scholars of Ahlus sunnah.
Let us see how much truth Mawlana Hussein Ahmed Tandvee has provided.
1. Ahlus sunnah and the mutazila are on agreement on this issue that Kidh ( lie ) is not possible ( Imtinaul kidh) for Allah. The Mutazilite say that lie is not possible for Allah because lying is a bad act and Allah does not perform bad acts. And we Ahlus sunnah say with agreement of all that lying is a defect and Allah is free from all the defects.
( Sharah Muwafiq, page 604)
2. We have said that the Asharis and the Non- Asharis do not have any disagreement that those attributes which are defect for human beings , Allah is free from them and is not attributed to Allah. And lying is a defect for human beings.
( Masamirah , page 84)
3. To lie is a defect. And Allah is free from all defects.
4.We have already dealth in the issue of Kalam that Allah is not attributed with lying ( Imtinaul kidhb). ( Sharah mawafiq , page 675)
5. We Ahlus sunnah say that lying is a defect near people of knowledge and it has been proved that attributing lie to Allah is defect. Hence attributing lying to Allah is not accepted. ( Masamirah, Delhi , page 84)
6.Allah is free from all defects, like ignorance and lying.
( masamirah page 166)
Mawlana Tandvee says” this issue of Imkan e kidhb has also been accepted and explained in Sharah Aqaid Jalalee.
7. Lying is a defect and defect is not attributed ( mahaal) to Allah. Hence lying of Allah is not from “ mumkinaat” ( possibilities) and neither the Power ( qudrah ) of Allah is associated with it. All defects like, ignorance is not attributed to the power of Allah.
( Sharah Aqaid Jalalee).
Note: It talks about Imtinaul kidhb and REFUTES imkan e kidhb .
7.Allah has said that He will never leave His promise. This is a clear proof that Allah is free from all lying in full filling His promises. Our friends ( Ahlus sunnah) have accepted from this that lying of Allah is not among the possibilities . ( Imam Razi , Tafseer Kabeer
8.To accept the correctness of quran , it is necessary that lying of Allah be accepted among the impossibilities .( Imam Razi , Tafseer Kabir)
9.To attribute lying to Allah is kufr as all the people of knowledge have made an Ijma on this that Allah is from lying.( Imam Razi, Tafseer Kabir)
10.To attribute lying upon Allah is among the impossibilities ( Imam Ali al Qari , Sharah Fiqh al akbar)
11.Allah will not be attributed with cruelty ( Zulm) and Lying ( Kidhb)( Shaykh Zaynuddin Qasim Hanafi, Sharah M.asamirah, Delhi , page 89)
12.Allah is not attributed with cruelty and lying as impossibilities are not associated with the power of Allah ( Allama Abu barkat Nasafi )
13.Lying is considered as impossibilities for Allah
( Allama Sayyed Abdul Hameed Baghdadi, Nashruli ilee sharah Amali, Egypt , page 96)
14.Lying is a defect and defect is not attributed to Allah. So lying of Allah is not among the possibilities neither it is associated with the qudrah ( power ) of Allah.
( Aqaid Aziriyah, p 82)
15.Considering lying in the speech of Allah is among the impossibilities . ( Allama Taftazani, sharah Aqaid , p 185)
16.Lying of Allah is among the impossibilities ( Shaykh Mohammed Nuri, sharah Tejaanul dari, Egypt , p 24)
17.In explaining the verse” Man asdaqu Minallahi haditha” Allama Ali ibn Ibrahim Baghdadi says , it means no one is more Truthful than Allah, He never breaks His promise and His lying is among the impossibilities.(Al babut taweel , Egypt, vol 1 , page 461)
18 In explaining the same verse Allama Nasafi says ‘ No is more truthful than Allah ,with regard to His revelations and promises. Lying is not among the possibilities for Allah ( Tafseer Madarik, Egypt vol 1 , p 461)
19 Allamah Baydawi says , there cannot be any lie in the revelations ( khabar) of Allah as lying is a defect and Allah is free from defects ( Tafsir Baydawi,p 150)
20Allama Abu saud under the same verse” Lying is not attributed to Allah” ( Tafseer Abu saud vol 1 , page 412)
21.The Mutazilites said that if it is not due to the ruling for the reasoning of the mind then lying of Allah will be among the possibilities. The Ahlus sunnah said lying is a defect and Allah is free from all defects
( Allamah Muhibullah,in muslimuth thaboot and Mawlana Bahrul Uloom in Fawatiur rahmat, page 24)
22.Allah is truthful and there is no possibility of lying for Him
( same as 21)
23.Allah is free from lying because it is among the defects
( Allama . Muhaqqiq mawlana Abdul haq khairabadi Rh in Sharah Muslimuth thaboot , Kanpur, page 116)
24 The sect “ Mazdariyah” ( sub sect of Mutazila) is named after Mazdar Abu Musa Isa ibn masih….. He said that Allah can lie and can commit cruelty. If Allah does these acts He will be liar and cruel and Allah is free from these defects which this cursed man ( mardood) has said about Him.
( Sharah Mawafiq , page 749)
24.The power of Allah is associated only with “ mumkin’ ( possibilities) and not with the ‘ impossibilities”.
(Masamirah ,page 65)
We see that all the scholars agreed that any type of flaw/defect is impossible for Allah.
Please note :
Almighty has Power over everything that is possible. There is nothing possible which is outside His Power. In the same way, anything that is totally impossible is not within His Power. Anything which is absolutely impossible has not connection to Almighty Allah, as He is free from this. An example of this is that there can never be another Allah. The non existence of another Allah is absolutely impossible over which Allah has no Power or command. In the same way, the destruction of Allah is absolutely impossible and has no connection to Him. It is thus very evident neither are those things which are absolutely impossible connected to Him and nor does Allah have any Power (command) over them. Thus, it has been proven that to accept any Muhaal (absolutely impossible) to be within Allah’s Qudrat, is to, in reality reject the oneness of Allah.
He is Qaadir (has power) over everything that is possible (Mumkin). There is nothing possible that is out of his Power.
Maqdoor refers to those things which are within Allah’s Power (Qudrat). It is not necessary that any or all Madoor things have to come to existence. However, only those things that are possible are Maqdoor. Muhaal or absolutely impossible things are not Maqdoor.
An example of this, is that if Allah Wills then a He can create a Mountain of gold or make the skies of rubies, but this is not so. It therefore does not mean that it must be in existence. It is His Will that He brings into existence whatever He Wills
Almighty Allah is All Splendid and Most Graceful. He is free from all that which has shortage or defect. It is absolutely impossible for there to be any shortages or defects in Allah. Allah is even free from that which has neither shortage nor splendor. Almighty Allah is free from all defects, such as lies, deceit, distrust, tyranny, ignorance, immodesty etc. To say that lies is within his Qudrat in this sense, that he can tell a lie, is to say a Muhaal (absolutely impossible) to be mumkin (possible), and to say Almighty Allah to have defect and this would be rejecting Almighty Allah. To think that Almighty Allah’s Qudrat has a shortage if He does not have Power over a Muhaal, (absolutely impossible thing) is totally incorrect. It is not a shortage in the Qudrat of Allah. In reality, it is the weakness and shortage of that Muhaal, that it is not worthy of having connection with the Qudrat of Allah.
Lying which is to say something that isn’t true, is an abvious flaw and Alah is only attributed with complete perfection. It is an attribute of creation and Allah does not resemble His creation.
Muhaal ( impossibility) has been divided into 3 types
1) Muhaal ‘Aqli
2) Muhaal shari’i
3) Muhaal ‘aadi
Others divided into still further
4) Both ‘Aqlan and Sharan
5) Both Aqala’ and ‘aadatn
6) Both Shari’e and ‘aadi
7) All theee , ‘aqli , shari’I and ‘Aadi
Out of these 7 , first , second, fourth and fifth are “ baatil “.
Hence we are left with three.
Lying is an attribute of speech and Allah’s speech is a must an attribute of perfection, it is not something that pertains to Allah’s power. If some one says that it pertains to Allah’s power, then he is saying that it is created , which is kufr , as agreed upon by the four imams.
Ibn Hazm said something similar , viz , ” Allah is Qadir to have a son ” , for which he was refuted by Ahlus sunnah
ANOTHER DEOBANDI ATTEMPT TO PROVE THAT ALLAH CAN LIE
Some Deobandi said that some scholars did accept thsis belief that Allah can lie . He said this can be read in Tahrir Usul and Ibn Amir al-Hajj’s commentary.
The deobandi said
“The text clearly says about lying and injustice (in the Ash’ari view espoused here) “The reality/actuality is one of the two opposites [i.e. truth] although the other is not impossible” [al-waqi’u ahadu al-naqidayn ma’a ‘adamu istihalat al-akhar].”
The quote present in Huliyah by Muhaqqia Ibn Amir al Hajj was also quoted by Imam Ibn Abideen (rh) in his Durrul Muhtar. The same was quoted byShaykh Khaleel Ambethvee when he said that Allama Ibn abideen has written in his durrul Muhtar that ‘ a few of the asharis were of the view that khalfe wayreed is permisisble. ( Mawlana Khaleel tries to confuse between khalfe wayeed and Imkan e kadhib).
Imam Ahmed Raza (rh) caugth this trick of Deobandis and said ” why dont you quote the complete discussion in Durrul Muhtar’?
Then Imam Ahmed Raza (Rh) replied here quoting Durrul Muhtar ( see the arabic text)
Imam Ibn Abideen is having a discussion of Khale wayeed ( not imkan e kidhb) and he writes
” The author of Huliyah , Muhaqqiq Ibn Amir al Hajj at first accepted the view of Khalfe wayeed but later refuted it and proved that its basis is in a famous ‘ mas’la” and that is , whether Khalfe wayeed is permssible and what ever is in its agreement is as follow …. ( Mawlana Khaleel DID NOT quote this )
Imam Ibn Abideen (Rh)further quotes Ibn Amir Al Hajj that Khalfe wayeed is for( JAWAJ) Muslims and not for Kuffar.
The same Muhaqqiq Amir Al Hajj in the same book writes ( see the arabic quotes here)
” The meaning of Khalfe wayeed DOES NOT MEAN that those people who have been told about punishment will not get punishment, as this iis QATA’AN MUHAAL ( impossible) for Allah , as it is firm belief that IT IS NOT POSSIBLE that those who have been told about reward , will not get the reward because lying is Muhal in HIS words.
The use of the words “imkan al-kidhb”; according to Shaykh Nuh it implies the factual possibility of lying and is therefore kufr. Deobandi scholars use that term. A recent fatwa by Darul Uloom Deoband is a proof of that.
Deobandis said “think it’s fair to say, therefore, the Ash’ari view is that lying is not in Allah’s Power but there may have been some dissenting voices amongst the Ash’aris”.
This is called play safe game! The first part of his statement is true, but the second part is trying to validate the view of Deobandis, which is wrong.
1. Every classical ash’ari text clearly says that kidhb/kadhib is muHal for Allah ta’ala. it is obvious that anything that is muHal cannot be mumkin.
2. In the Hashiyah of jawharah imam ibrahim bayjuri states [quoting baqillani and imam al-Haramayn]
“wa’n naqSu `alayhi ta’ala muHal” / it is impossible to attribute Allah ta’ala with ANY flaw.
everybody knows that lie or kadhib/kidhb is a flaw – `aqlan wa shar`an.
3. Hashiyah al-bayjuri on jawharah:
to renege on His promise [khulf fi’l wa’ad] is a flaw [naqS] and it is mandatory to believe that Allah ta’ala is free from it. this is unanimously agreed among both ash`aris and maturidis. [mutaffiqun `alayhi fi’l ashayirah wa’l maturidiyah]
4 what the deobandi does, is adds imkan al-kadhib as a corollary [furu’] of the latter principle [khulf al-wa`yid] which none of the ash`aris or maturidis allow. so the quote of taftazani and sharif jurjani from maqaSid and mawaqif is about the latter matter – not about imkan al-kadhib.
Infact, in both of these and every major treatise of kalam it is clearly written that: lying is impossible for Allah ta’ala’ because it is precluded from his Power because it is a flaw and every flaw is precluded from His Power.
notice here, that the deobandis claim themselves to be maturidis and there is no maturidi text that allows the latter [khilaf al-wa`yid] either
5. In sharH al-maqaSid of taftazani it is clearly written:
al-kadhib naqSun bi ittifaqi’l `uqala wa `ala Allahi muHal li ma fihi amaratu’l `ajz aw al-jahl aw al-`abath.
falsehood is a flaw, according to every sensible person [or wise men] and this is impossible to attribute Allah ta’ala with because this necessitates impotenct or ignorance or futility. [sharH al-maqaSid vol.4/pg.158, `alam al-kutub]
In any kalaam books there is not one instance where they have said, al-kidhb jaayiz li’llahi ta’ala. this furu’u or corollary is invented by the deobandis – just show me any classical scholar claiming that khalf al-wa’eed is another word for imkan al-kadhib.
As for the fallacious reasoning that Allah has power to do anything includes kidhb, it is clearly explained by our [i mean ulama ahlu’s sunnah] that this is a mu’tazili belief. in sharH fiqh al-akbar, allamah `ali al-qari says: ‘the mu’tazilah believe that DHulm [or oppression] is in the Power of Allah but He does not do it.’
even the mu’tazili doesn’t accept that Allah ta’ala can lie because according to them falsehood is an ugly thing and the Power [qudrah] of Allah ta’ala precludes ugly things. whereas ahlu’s sunnah say that falsehood is a naqS or flaw, and it is impossible [muHal] for Allah ta’ala to be attributed with a flaw. if something is muHal, the question of imkan does not arise.
Id Deobandis are ash’ari, they do not have to do taqlid in matters of `aqidah; and if they are a maturidi, no maturidi scholar allowed the matter of khalf al-wa’eed and by transition even the supposed [and egregious] deobandi-invented corollary of imkan al-kadhib; therefore, you do not have to believe in it either.
Imam Ar Razi writes
the second attribute: from the attributes of the Word of Allah is that it is truthful. the proof is that because falsehood is a flaw and it is impossible to attribute Allah ta’ala with a flaw [muHal].
it is not permissible [laa yajuz] to prove that falsehood is muHal for Allah ta’ala by narrated proofs [dalayi’l as-sam`yiyyah] because the validity [siHHah] of narrated proofs [itself] is dependent on the [premise] that lying or falsehood is impossible for Allah ta’ala.
because if we attested impossibility of lying [imtina’a al-kadhib] by narrated proofs, it becomes circular logic and is [therefore] inaccurate.
Know that that just as this [above statement] proves that it is impossible [muHal] for Allah ta’ala to renege on His Promise [al-khulf fi’l w’ad], it also proves that it is muHal for Him to renege on His Promise of Punishment [al-khulfa fi wa’yidihi] unlike what WaHidi has said in his tafsir:
whosoever kills a believer deliberately, then his punishment is hellfire, wherein he shall abide forever. [an-nisa, 93] verily, it is permissible for Allah ta’ala to revoke His promise of punishment.
This is because His promise of reward and punishment [wa’ad and wa’eed] are the Words of Allah; when this verse [al-maidah, 115 – on which ar-razi is commenting] proves that it is mandatory to attribute the Word of Allah with Truth; therefore just as reneging on His promise of reward is impossible [mumtani`y] so also is revoking His promise of punishment
al-kadhib naqSun bi ittifaqi’l `uqala wa `ala Allahi muHal li ma fihi amaratu’l `ajz aw al-jahl aw al-`abath.
falsehood is a flaw, according to every sensible person [or wise men] and this is impossible to attribute Allah ta’ala with, because this necessitates impotence or ignorance or futile amusement.
[sa’aduddin taftazani in sharH al-maqaSid vol.4/pg.158, `alam al-kutub]
Hashiyah of jawharah imam ibrahim bayjuri states [quoting baqillani and imam al-Haramayn] “wa’n naqSu `alayhi ta’ala muHal” / it is impossible to attribute Allah ta’ala with ANY flaw.
Allamah taftazani in SharH al-MaqaSid, the sixth discussion: that Allah ta’ala Speaks [al-mab’Hath as-sadis: fi annahu ta’ala mutakallim]:
falsehood is impossible by the unanimity of scholars, because falsehood is a flaw by the agreement of all sensible [sane] people and thus it is muHal/impossible for Allah ta’ala. [al-kadhibu muHalun bi-ijma`yi’l `ulama li anna’l kadhiba naqSun bi ittifaqi’l `uqala wa huwa `ala Allahi ta’ala muHal.]
and in the same book, discussing Husn and qubH, he says:
and we have already explained in the discussion of Speech that lying is not contingent for the Lawgiver [Allah] ta’ala. [qad bayyanna fi baHthi’l kalam imtin`a al-kadhib `ala Shariyi ta’ala ]
To renege on His promise [khulf fi’l wa’ad] is a flaw [naqS] and it is mandatory to believe that Allah ta’ala is free from it. this is unanimously agreed among both ash`aris and maturidis. [mutaffiqun `alayhi fi’l ashayirah wa’l maturidiyah]
however, concerning foregoing the promise of punishment [al-wa`yid]; this is considered as possible among the ash`aris because such a foregoing is not a flaw but a favor and generosity which merits praise.
Hashiyah Ibrahim al-Bajuri, tuHfatu’l murid sharH jawharatu’t tawHid
Al musamarah , (which is a sharah of Al Musayarah,) written by Kamaluddin al Maqdidi Ash Shafi clearly states the Aashari view is that every flaw is Muhal for Qudrah of Allah.
Hence the Deobandi remark “Some Ashari dissent” is misleading!